Category Archives: Holidays

Macaroni and Cheese? For Thanksgiving? Thanksgiving Dinner in 1883

Was Thanksgiving dinner different during Victorian times? If you were to sit down at a Thanksgiving table in 1883, you would see the familiar turkey and cranberry sauce and pies. But, what might surprise you would be, first, macaroni and cheese, and next, the meal that arrived when the Victorians called for macaroni and cheese.

Thanksgiving postcard circa 1900 showing turkey and football player. (Image courtesy of Wikipedia)

Macaroni and cheese in a white bowl.

What Victorians called macaroni and cheese, we would more readily recognize as a sort of lasagna.  Above, a photo of macaroni and cheese, the present-day variety.  (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In 1883, macaroni was said to be an acquired taste, and was still unfamiliar to many. To make macaroni and cheese, housekeepers were advised to boil the macaroni, then mix in a tablespoon of canned tomatoes, and then add a layer of freshly grated cheese.  On top of this, successive layers of boiled macaroni, canned tomatoes, and grated cheese, were added until the serving dish was filled.  When the resulting meal was delivered to the Thanksgiving table, it might be more familiar to us as a sort of lasagna instead of the macaroni and cheese we know.

Not surprisingly, if you were to venture into the kitchen, the meals most familiar to us would be somewhat unfamiliar in their preparations.  Soon after arriving home with the Thanksgiving turkey, housekeepers were advised to dress the turkey, and then bathe it several times in a mixture of salt and water.  After washing it a few times, and after preparing a brisk, healthy fire, the turkey was roasted.  Two hours was the suggested roasting time for a ten-pound turkey.  The dressing was made of bread crumbs, butter, salt, pepper, thyme, sage, sweet marjoram, and one egg.  It was kept moist by adding in some hot milk.  Many liked chopped onion or sausage to be added.  As the turkey roasted, it was basted with butter,water, and later, pan drippings.  Before bringing the turkey to the table, many added fried oysters to the plate.

Before the advent of canned cranberries, the preparation of this Thanksgiving tradition was a source of anxiety for many.  One writer claimed that there was no fruit that was “more widely abused.”  To prepare a quart of cranberries, housekeepers were advised to have a pint of cold water and a quart of sugar at hand.  After washing the berries, housekeepers were advised to add them and the pint of cold water to a granite saucepan, and begin cooking them slowly.  Hard boiling would ruin them.  As the berries cooked, the sugar was to be added in slowly.  As the berries, water, and sugar melted into a syrup, more sugar was added.  The mixture was never to be stirred and took about 45 minutes to prepare.

As they are today, pies were a Thanksgiving Day staple too.  Two varieties, mince and pumpkin, were the most popular.  Most advice of the time assumed that just about everyone knew how to make a good pie crust and that any country woman worth her salt could make a top-rate mince or pumpkin pie.  In the country, mince meat would need to be made long before the Thanksgiving Day holiday.  In the city, it could always be purchased, whenever needed, at the grocery store.  To make a pumpkin pie, a housekeeper needed a pint of stewed pumpkin, strained through a sieve.  To this, four eggs would be added, along with a quart of milk and some spices and sugar.  After baking, the pie was sprinkled with powdered sugar and brought to the table.  Other familiar sights filled out the Thanksgiving table of 1883.  Mashed white potatoes, roasted sweet potatoes, celery, pickles, and bread were all there.  So were sweet cider, raisins, nuts, and black coffee.  Cole slaw was another popular component of the Thanksgiving Day meal.

Like parents today, Americans living in Victorian-era Massachusetts, worried about how to entertain the little ones.  One Boston Globe writer advised involving the children in making their very own Thanksgiving Day creation.  The writer advised providing the children with a large moulding board and a tin pan, far away from the kitchen.  With the pan on the moulding board, the children were to add 12 tablespoons of white flour, some water and a handful of raisins.  After this, they added four tablespoons of sugar , some molasses, vanilla flavoring, cinnamon, and allspice. One egg later, the concoction was ready to cooked on the stove for two to three hours.  The writer advised saving the eggshells for ornamentation.  The smell of burnt pastry was the sign that the children’s creation was done.  It wasn’t edible, of course, but children could then be escorted outside to the woodshed, where a helpful adult would dismantle their concoction with a sledgehammer or axe.

Thanksgiving Day — Arrival at the old home, 1858

One look at Thanksgiving Day advice for 1883 shows that the Thanksgiving meal hasn’t changed much in the last 130 years, even if the preparation of the meal, and diversions for those not involved in the preparations, have.  Sure, Thanksgiving dishes of macaroni and cheese and cole slaw might seem strange to us today, but the turkey and cranberry sauce were still the mainstays of the Thanksgiving meal even then.  And, hasn’t the Thanksgiving meal always been about the turkey and cranberry sauce?

A Look Back at 1911 – Events from a Century Ago

Happy New Year, readers!  And best wishes for a successful and prosperous 2012!  While I’ve been browsing through old family photographs and correspondence, I came across some old postcards, mostly from the 1911-1914 period.  One of the first I found was this one, wishing a happy 1911.  As we approach a new year, it’s common to reflect on the one that’s ending.  This post will explore some of the themes and stories that were present in our ancestors’ minds a century ago, as 1911 came to a close.

Soldiers from the Scots Guards open fire on the cornered anarchists in the Siege of Sidney Street in London, 3 January 1911. Image is from a 1911 postcard illustrating the siege.

The year began with the world following the Siege of Sidney Street (also known as the Battle of Stepney), in London, where two members of a group of burglars with anarchist leanings were killed in a blaze that consumed their hideout and embroiled then-Home Secretary Winston Churchill in a controversy regarding his role in the skirmish.

Scenes from the Mexican Revolution via Wikipedia

A major news story of 1911 was the ongoing Mexican Revolution, which had started in 1910 and raged throughout the year, resulting in the May 1911 overthrow of longtime president/dictator Porfirio Diaz, who had led the  country since 1876.  By March, such concern arose in the United States over what had become a civil war in Mexico that the US sent 20,000 troops to the border along with 15 warships.  By November, the leader of the opposition forces of the revolution, Francisco L Madero came to power and assumed a presidency that would last less than two years when he was assassinated by military leaders who had remained loyal to Porfirio Diaz’s ideals.

In February 1911, the world watched with horror as famine raged across China causing thousands of deaths and untold suffering.

In the year’s first celebrity wedding, in February, John Beresford, or Lord Decies – an Anglo-Irish army officer, married Helen Vivian Gould, a socialite and daughter of a railroad executive and an American actress.  Scandal rocked the US Senate in March, when an investigation looking into accusations of bribery and unethical campaign activities against Senator William Lorimer (R-IL) culminated in a failure to unseat him.  A second investigation begun later in 1911 resulted in his unseating during 1912.

March 25, 1911 First published on front page of The New York World 1911-03-26, via Wikipedia

The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire hit New York City on March 25, 1911, resulting in the deaths of 146 men, women, and girls.  It remains the deadliest industrial disaster in the history of New York City, and the third-largest disaster in the city’s history.  The majority of the victims, mostly women aged between 14 and 48 years of age, were recent Jewish and Italian immigrants who died from fire, smoke inhalation, or from jumping from the building’s eighth, ninth, or tenth story-windows to the street below.  An investigation after the fire learned that managers had locked the doors leading to the stairwells and exits.

Great advances were made in the field of aviation during 1911.  Pierre Prier, a pilot from France, flew a monoplane from London to Paris without stopping, covering the 290 miles in about four hours.  A non-stop flight today takes a little less than 90 minutes.  Harry Nelson Atwood flew 576 miles on July 14 from Boston to the White House lawn and in August, flew from St. Louis to New York, making 11 stops over a 1250 mile distance.  Before the end of the year, Calbraith Perry Rodgers made history when he completed the first flight across the United States on November 5, 1911.

June 1911 saw the coronation of King George V, who remained Britain’s monarch through World War I and until he died in 1936.  June also marked the silver wedding anniversary of President Taft and his wife Helen Herron Taft.  Some 8,000 guests arrived for the gala held at the White House on June 19.  The RMS Olympic, of the same set of White Star ocean liners that included the Titanic, completed its maiden transatlantic voyage when it pulled into New York in June.

Astor and his wife Madeleine

During the summer of 1911, the country commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of the battle of Bull Run, the Civil War’s first big battle.  In September, the US watched another wedding – this one between John Jacob Astor and Madeline T. Force.  She would later survive the Titanic disaster.  He would not.

1911, specifically October, saw many deaths of the famous.  On October 2, Read Admiral Winfield Scott Schley, hero of the Spanish-American war‘s Battle of Santiago Bay, died.    About two weeks later, on October 14, Justice John Marshall Harlan of the US Supreme Court died.  Justice Harlan, a lawyer and politician from Kentucky, was a strong supporter of Southern segregation statutes and the criminalization of interracial marriage.  By the end of October, on the 29th, Joseph Pulitzer, a Hungarian-American journalist most famous for his namesake journalism award, died while aboard his yacht in Charleston Harbor.

In November, Henry Clay Beattie, Jr. was put to death in Virginia’s electric chair for the murder of his young wife, Louise.  Just weeks after the birth of their child, Beattie killed Louise while on a car ride late at night.  He initially tried to blame a “highwayman” for the crime, but his story quickly fell apart.  After his execution, he was buried, ironically, in the family plot next to the body of his murdered wife.

Real photo postcard of rubble of the Los Angeles Times Building after the 1910 bombing via Wikipedia

1911 closed with confessions obtained for what was then termed the “crime of the century”.  In December, two Irish American trade unionists, John J. McNamara, and James B. McNamara, admitted to the 1910 dynamiting of the Los Angeles Times building and the Llewellyn Iron Works, respectively.  At the conclusion of the trial, James was sentenced to life in imprisonment and John sentenced to 15 years.  James’ crime, the bombing of the LA Times Building resulted in the deaths of 21 newspaper employees and injured 100 more.

These events and names, so popular in our ancestors’ lives of a century ago, may not be so well-known today, but the themes – tragedy, war, and celebrity still ring familiar. 1912 might be best known today for the sinking of the Titanic on April 15.  It’s also known as the year in which New Mexico and Arizona became US states.  What will 2012 be known for?  What new histories will be written?

Happy New Year, readers, and best wishes for a successful and prosperous 2012!